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Archival images show Geronimo after his surrender in 1886

Sept. 4, 1886

“I will quit the warpath and live at peace hereafter,” the Apache chief known as Geronimo told U.S. General Nelson Miles near Skeleton Canyon in Arizona, marking the end of the “Indian Wars” in the Southwest. Geronimo had fought Americans and Mexicans for 30 years, after Mexicans slaughtered his family in a raid. But his remaining followers were hungry and outnumbered. Geronimo later said he was betrayed. Forced to live in Oklahoma, where he farmed and converted to Christianity, he was never allowed to return to his homeland. He attended the 1904 World’s Fair in St. Louis, where he sold signed photographs and took part in roping contests, but was kept under guard. In 1905, he marched in Theodore Roosevelt’s inauguration parade with five other chiefs. He died in 1909 at age 79.

Geronimo, Chiricahua Apache leader, c. 1907. Credit: Library of Congress

The Apache leader Geronimo drives a Ford automobile, ca. 1904, carrying three other Native American passengers. CORBIS

Geronimo, the great Apache chieftain at 70 years old, attends the 1904 World’s Fair in St. Louis. Credit: Library of Congress

Chief Geronimo rides atop a horse with other warriors shortly before his surrender to General Crook, 1886. CORBIS

A conference with Geronimo and General George Crook, 1886, Tombstone, Arizona. CORBIS

Geronimo, Chiricahua Apache leader, c. 1898. Credit: Library of Congress

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