Skip to main content

The Globe and Mail

Asia’s city-states face future of slower growth

Reuters Breakingviews delivers agenda-setting financial insight. Its global correspondents react to stories as they develop, delivering sharp and provocative commentary on big financial news as it breaks.

Singapore and Hong Kong are being forced to come to terms with slowing growth. For decades, the city-states have been among Asia's economic hot spots. But continued expansion will be restrained by popular discontent about crowding and rising property costs. A more pedestrian future awaits.

In Singapore, the debate flared up when the government recently published projections which show the population hitting 6.9 million by 2030, an increase of 30 per cent. The news was met with howls of outrage from citizens already concerned by crowding and high property prices. A rare public protest is planned for Feb. 16.

Story continues below advertisement

Judged by historical standards, however, Singapore's ambitions are modest. The plan foresees the work force expanding by 1 to 2 per cent a year, compared with an average of 3.3 per cent over the past three decades. Given its aging population and declining birth rate, this means importing more foreign workers, but with strict limits.

Hong Kong faces a similar conundrum. The former British colony's population is projected to expand at an annual rate of just 0.6 to 0.8 per cent over the next two decades. Over the same period, the proportion of active workers is expected to shrink below 50 per cent, from close to 59 per cent in 2012.

Throwing the doors open is not an option. In both cities, restrictions on land development, combined with hot money flows, have pushed up apartment prices faster than wages. Hong Kong recently copied Singapore by imposing extra taxes on foreign property buyers. Popular discontent contributed to the recent by-election defeat for Singapore's long-dominant People's Action Party. In Hong Kong, unhappiness about visitors from mainland China has prompted the government to take the extraordinary step of limiting purchases of baby milk powder.

Such restrictions will change the profile and appeal of the city-states. For years, they have expanded more quickly than other Asian economies. Between 1960 and 2011, Singapore's GDP per head expanded at a compound rate of 9.6 per cent. Hong Kong was only slightly slower at 8.9 per cent. As surrounding economies expand, Singapore and Hong Kong may no longer be seen as vibrant international centres. A more plodding prosperity is the best they can hope for.

Report an error

The Globe invites you to share your views. Please stay on topic and be respectful to everyone. For more information on our commenting policies and how our community-based moderation works, please read our Community Guidelines and our Terms and Conditions.

We’ve made some technical updates to our commenting software. If you are experiencing any issues posting comments, simply log out and log back in.

Discussion loading… ✨

Combined Shape Created with Sketch.

Combined Shape Created with Sketch.

Thank you!

You are now subscribed to the newsletter at

You can unsubscribe from this newsletter or Globe promotions at any time by clicking the link at the bottom of the newsletter, or by emailing us at